This day will be observed on January 07, 2020
Why do we observe the Fast of 10 Tevet? The Babylonians couldn't even breach the walls of Jerusalem until two years later. In order to understand the true significance of 10 Tevet, we need to look at the bigger story.
Jews traditionally fast on Asara B'Tevet... but are you curious to know the meaning of 10 Tevet? Sure, you might recall some points of trivia about what happened, historically, on 10 Tevet, but do you have a satisfying answer to these questions:
What is the significance of this fast?
How should I experience it: personally, religiously?
These are the kinds of questions that we ask every day at Aleph Beta — and our first step, in seeking an answer, is always to turn to the Biblical text.
Now, there are two places where the Bible mentions 10 Tevet and describes, in broad strokes, what happened on this day — but it doesn't seem to offer us more than the barest of accounts: If you read Jeremiah 52 or 2 Kings 25, you'll learn that on 10 Tevet, the king of the nearby Babylonian empire (his name was Nebuchadrezzar) arrived in the holy city of Jerusalem and set up camp. His army would remain there for two years before they were finally able to breach the wall of the city and enter. But based on that alone, it's hard to understand why this day should be such a big deal that it warrants its own fast, thousands of years later.
However, Jeremiah and Kings aren't the only places in the Bible where 10 Tevet is mentioned. There's another mention — and it is pretty surprising:
"Then the word of the Lord came to me in the ninth year, in the tenth month, on the tenth of the month, saying: 'Son of man, write for yourself the name of the day, this very day; the king of Babylon has besieged Jerusalem on this very day...'" (Ezekiel 24:1–2)
Now, this verse may not seem very surprising, at first glance. But if you look at the original Hebrew wording, you may notice that there's
"On this very day..."
This phrase is, it seems, a clue to unpacking the meaning of 10 Tevet. For if you look back to those few earlier instances in the Bible where we find this phrase, you'll see that "
Ah, but perhaps that is exactly the point. You see, to understand the significance of 10 Tevet, you can't just study the events of that day, in isolation. You have to put it in context. To think about what would happen two years later. And two years after that.
You see, 10 Tevet is not the only fast in the Jewish calendar that relates, in some way, to the destruction of the ancient city of Jerusalem and the beautiful Temple that once stood within it. No, 10 Tevet is one of four such fasts... and together, they tell a larger story. If we can piece together that larger story, then we may understand what was so monumental about the Babylonians setting up camp... even though they didn't even break through the walls. We'll understand why the Bible calls it a
What is that story? Well, let's take a step back and review the basics of those other three fasts and their significances:
17 Tammuz. This is the date on which, two years later, the Babylonians broke through the walls of Jerusalem.
9 Av. This commemorates the actual destruction of the Temple and the city of Jerusalem, as well as the violent exile of its people.
Now, we should pause to note that these two
But in fact, the story continues. On the day after Rosh Hashanah, we observe the Fast of Gedaliah... which picks up where 9 Av left off. While the scope of destruction that occurred on
And now: step back, survey this context, and ask yourself: what is the meaning of 10 Tevet? What was so transformative about this day?
That the Babylonians came and encamped around Jerusalem — that, in and of itself, probably would not have merited a fast day, and almost certainly would not have merited the biblical moniker "
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