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What was Abraham thinking as he walked up the mountain to slaughter his long-awaited son? How could Abraham be disloyal to his own paternal responsibilities and betray Isaac? In this video, we explore Abraham’s struggle during the Binding of Isaac through his brief but rich conversation with his son. In so doing, we expose an added element of the test in the command to slaughter his son and uncover a new perspective of Abraham’s greatness.
Hi everybody, this is Rabbi David Fohrman and welcome to Parshat Vayeira.
Last week I introduced you to these Atbash patterns which I think are very fascinating and today I want to show you one of them in Parshat Vayeira that I think has very dramatic consequences, consequences for understanding a very, very difficult story, the story of the binding of Isaac, the akedah.
When normally we think of the binding of Isaac, we think of that as a kind of test of faith. I want to argue that it’s more than that. It’s not just the story of how faithful Avraham is to God. It’s about something else too, the Atbash pattern suggest exactly what that is. Come with me to B’Reshit chaf-bet, chapter 22. The easiest way to see the pattern, begin to pick it up, is to look at the end of verse 6. “Vayelchu shneihem yachdav”: Avraham and Yitzhak, walking together up to the mountain.
Turns out, that phrase, “vayelchu shneihem yachdav” appears another time. It’s just couple of verses later, in verse 8, “vayelchu shneihem yachdav.” Avraham and Isaac walk together.
Okay, interesting. Is there anything else about this story that has that sort of mirror image quality? Let’s look right before the first ‘vayelchu shneihem yachdav” and see if we find anything there that mirrors something that comes right after this second ‘vayelchu shneihem yachdav.’ That’s where you would look for an Atbash pattern.
Look at the beginning of verse 6: “vayikach Avraham et-atzei ha-olah vayasem al-Yitzhak bno.” Avraham took the wood for the offering and put it on top of Yitzhak. Now, just a very practical question, if you were carrying branches on your back what would have to be done to the branches in order for you to be able transport them on your back, you have to rope them all together. Yitzhak is carrying roped-up wood on his back up the mountain. Roped-up wood on top of Isaac.
Now look at the bottom of the story. So Avraham builds an alter “v’ya’aroch et ha etzim” and he arranges the wood, “v’ya’akod et Yitzhak bno” and he ties up Yitzhak, “vayasem otoh al-ha-mizbeach mi-maal l’etzim” and he puts him on top of the wood. Fascinating, tied up Yitzhak on top of wood, mirroring tied up wood on top of Isaac. What we are seeing is like the beginning of this chiasm, ABBA, leading you to ask, well what’s in the middle?
What happens in the middle is a conversation, a conversation between Yitzhak and Avraham. It is a conversation which you might think is kind of trivial until you realize it’s the only conversation we know of in the entire Torah between Avraham and Yitzhak. It must be a pretty important conversation. This conversation is the center of the chiasm. Do you know what that means?
The implications are that the center of gravity around which this whole story revolves, is this conversation. Something happens here that this story is all about, what happens here?
Verse 7: “Vayomer Yitzhak el-Avraham aviv, vayomer avi.” If you listen carefully to these words, you will find a redundancy. Listen to them one more time, and Yitzhak said to Avraham his father, and he said, my father. Did you hear that, there is an extra ‘And he said.’ Why do you need the second, ‘And he said’? Also why does the text have to tell you that Avraham is his father?
So my Rosh Yeshiva, Yaakov Weinberg—z”l [zichro l’vracha]—says there are two different conversations here, it’s just that the first one got interrupted. “Vayomer Yitzhak el Avraham aviv”…and Yitzhak said to Avraham, his father…and then you’re waiting to hear what it is that he said, but then Yitzhak stopped and he said something else and the something else that he said was ‘My father.’
Now if you are Avraham and you hear those words, what would you want to do? ‘My father.’ Those are the two words that you just don’t want to hear right now…because what are you going up to the mountain to do? You are going up to the mountain because God told you you have to give back your son, you have to kill your son and offer him up to God at the top of the mountain. It’s inconceivable, but this is what God said that he wants. What’s the one obligation that a father has towards his son? The one obligation is protection and here you are, going to kill your son!
So if you are Abraham, how do you do this? You try to avoid thinking about it, you think about anything you can think about, you want to distract, you are talking about the weather, you are talking about this, you are talking about that, but the one thing you don’t want to think about is the father-son relationship. But the Torah goes out of its way to tell you it’s there.
“Vayomer Yitzhak el-Avraham aviv”: It reminds us who Avraham is. Avraham is his father and Yitzhak said to Avraham, his father, and he said one word: ‘My father.’ And if you are Yitzhak’s father and you hear those words from your son, what do you want to do now? You want to run away, run down the mountain,you want to have nothing to do with this. Forget it, I am out of here, and if you don’t run away physically, you run away emotionally. You want to talk about anything [other] than what Isaac wants to talk about. What is going to happen in this conversation? This is the conversation where Yitzhak finds out the truth. What’s the question that comes next?
“Vayomer, hinei ha-esh v’ha-etzim.” Yitzhak says, here is the wood, here is the fire—“v’ayeh ha-seh l-olah”—where is the lamb for the offering? What do you mean, where is the lamb for the offering. And in Hebrew there are two words for ‘Where’ one is ‘eifo’ the other is ‘ayeh.’ Eifo is always just a general request for location.
‘Ayeh’ is never a request for location. ‘Ayeh’ never means where are you, it means where have you gone, why aren’t you here? “Ayeh ha-seh l-olah” doesn’t mean, ‘dad, where is the lamb for the offering, did we leave it by the woodshed or is it over there by the house?’ No, it means where did the lamb go? That’s a different question entirely. That question is, ‘Am I the lamb?’ This is the conversation, where Isaac finds out and this I believe is exactly what Rashi means to tell us when Rashi talks about the two “vayelchu shneihem yachdav’s.” Rashi says, the same way that they walked together before this conversation, they walked together after this conversation. Because if you think about it, what could introduce the greatest dissonance in the relationship between father and son?
I had a dream last night and God came to me and said I am supposed to kill you. That would be the greatest problem that you could possibly imagine in a relationship, right? I mean this is what Avraham and Yitzhak have to contend with, but the same unity of mind and heart which united father and son before this conversation exists after this conversation as well and that’s the greatness of Avraham and Yitzhak here.
Now look carefully at what happens in this conversation. How does Avraham answer his son? “Vayomer Avraham,” and Avraham says, “Elohim yireh-lo ha-seh l-olah bni.” God will show for himself a lamb for the offering my son. And the question is, what exactly does that mean? It actually depends on where you put the comma and Rashi points this out as well. The phrase could be understood in one of two ways; either can mean, God will show for himself a lamb for the offering, comma, my son. But what if you put no comma in? God will show for himself a lamb for the offering my son. Then maybe my son is the offering, maybe my son is the lamb. Why is Avraham being ambiguous?
Maybe the answer is Avraham doesn’t know what’s going to be at the top of this mountain. It doesn’t make any sense. God promised that there would be a great nation coming through you but he is also telling me to come and I am supposed to offer up my son at the top of the mountain? None of this makes any sense. What’s going to happen at the top of the mountain, I don’t know. But I know one thing, I know that God has a job and I have a job. God is going to figure out what is going to happen on top of the mountain. I don’t know what the lamb is. Maybe the lamb is you, that’s up to God, but there’s something that’s up to me. What’s up to me?
What’s up to me happens right at the middle of this conversation. There are five vayomer’s in this conversation. This conversation is the center of the Akedah and if there are five vayomer’s in the Akedah, there’s a middle one. The middle ‘vayomer, ‘and he said’, is what Avraham said to Yitzhak, after Yitzhak said, ‘My father’. What did Avraham say? “Vayomer hineini bni.” ‘Here I am, my son.’ That’s the center of the Akedah. Right when I want to run away most, I am here for you. Ask your question. I know who you are, you are my son and I am your father. Now, ask your question. Avraham’s greatness was that he didn’t run away, not physically and not emotionally. What’s going to happen on the top of the mountain – I have no idea. I am your father and I am here for you. Isn’t it fascinating that the Akedah begins with ‘hineini’—hineini to God. God calls out and says, ‘Avraham, Avraham’ and Avraham answers, hineini ‘here I am’ and at the end of the story, the angel calls out and Avraham answers hineini. It’s one thing to say ‘here I am’ to God and ‘here I am’ to the angel. It’s another thing to say, ‘here I am’ to Yitzhak.
Avraham’s greatness is that he balances all of this. You see I could turn off to Yitzhak and say, I have nothing to do with him, my allegiance is to God. Or I could just say, God I have nothing to do with you, this is crazy, my allegiance is to Yitzhak. Avraham’s greatness is he is going to be here for both of them. It’s a contradiction, it makes no sense, it doesn’t matter. I have allegiance towards both. At the top of the mountain God’s going to have to figure it out. Until then I am here, not just for God, I am here for my son too and that’s the greatness of Avraham. Avraham has fealty to every important relationship, even when these two worlds collide. It doesn’t make any sense, that’s God’s problem, he will have to figure it out. I am here for both.
1. Bereishit: Does Man 'Acquire' Woman?
2. Noach: Why Did God Destroy the World?
3. Lech Lecha: Covenant With God
4. Vayeira: Abraham's Struggle With Loyalty
5. Chayei Sarah: What Makes For A Successful Life?
6. Toldot: A Conversation For the Ages
7. Vayeitzei: Consequences of Yaakov's Deceit
8. Vayishlach: Becoming a Person of Integrity
9. Vayeishev: Who Really Sold Joseph?
10. Miketz: Why Didn't Joseph Write Home?
11. Vayigash: The Epic Confrontation Between Judah and Joseph
12. Vayechi: Who is Joseph's Real Father?
13. Shmot: If Midrash is Real, Why Isn't It Peshat?
14. Va'era: Did God Take Away Pharaoh's Free Will?
15. Bo: Did God Really Need Ten Plagues?
16. Beshalach: What Does It Mean to Have Faith?
17. Yitro: The Marriage of God and Israel
18. Mishpatim: Female Servitude...Wait, What?
19. Terumah: Is There a Face Hiding in the Tabernacle?
20. Tetzaveh: Where Is God In a Physical World?
21. Ki Tisa: Moshe's Benevolent Chutzpah
22. Ki Tisa: Epilogue
23. Pekudei: A Giant Chiasm In Sefer Shmot
24. Vayikra: Can Leaders Make Mistakes?
25. Tzav: What Does It Mean To Survive?
26. Shemini: Why Did God Reject Nadav and Avihu?
27. Tazria: The Bizarre Purification of the Metzora
28. Metzora: Living Within the Community
29. Acharei Mot: The (Surprising) Purpose of Yom Kippur
30. Kedoshim: How Can I Achieve True Love?
31. Emor: What Sabbath Is All About
32. Behar: Why Does Land Have To Rest?
33. Bechukotai: Why Would God Curse His People?
34. Bamidbar: Who Cares About Genealogy?
35. Shelach: Is Hope Irrational?
36. Korach: Can We Influence God?
37. Chukat: Was Hitting the Rock So Horrible?
38. Balak: Balaam, Prophet For Hire?
39. Pinchas: What Does It Mean To Be Zealous For God?
40. Matot: Why Is The End of Bamidbar So Anticlimactic?
41. Masei: Why Is The End of Bamidbar So Anticlimactic? II
42. Devarim: What Does It Mean To Have Faith?
43. Va'etchanan: Seeing Layers in the Ten Commandments
44. Eikev: What Does It Mean To Be A Good Person?- Part 1/2
45. Eikev: What Does It Mean To Be A Good Person?- Part 2/2
46. Shoftim: The Line Between Murder And Apathy
47. Shoftim: Epilogue 1
48. Shoftim: Epilogue 2
49. Ki Tavo: The Soliloquy Of The Farmer- Part 1/2
50. Ki Tavo: The Soliloquy Of The Farmer- Part 2/2
51. Nitzavim-Vayeilech: Where's the Happy Ending? - Part 1/3
52. Ha'azinu: A Unique Nation - Part 2/3
53. V'Zot Habracha: Looking Towards the Future - Part 3/3