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So where did all the dinosaurs go? Well, I guess they probably didn’t have room on the big boat for them during the flood. That is one of the sort of folk legends which we had around for the disappearances for the dinosaurs. Certainly the dinosaurs are the most visible mysterious component of the vanished world. I know this that when I take my kids to museum of natural history, that’s the draw, the dinosaur room. There’s raptosaurus rex battling megalosaurus and they are huge and they have got fangs and your 7 year old is wide eyed and that’s why you even bother to go to the museum of natural history at the first place. What’s the deal with these dinosaurs and then the painful question, the question that the 7 year old girl asks her father, stares up into his eyes, ‘Daddy, how come these aren’t in our book?’ I mean the Torah is supposed to contain the great history of it all, so where are all the dinosaurs?
That’s what I want to talk to you about today.
Okay, so I would like to give you a general frame work for thinking about this question but not really just this question but really puzzling things about the Torah itself and I will elaborate some of that later but let me jump in and give you the paradigm right now.
A while back a read a fantastic book and it is called ‘How to Read a Book’ by Mortimer Adler. He tries to give you a manual as to how to attack a book, how to go about understanding it. One of the very first things he said, he says, ‘you have to decide early on, what kind of genre the book is and if you misinterpret the genre of the book, then you are lost from the very beginning and you really have no chance of really understanding it’. So imagine you are actually reading poetry, you are reading the Carl Sandburg poem ‘The Fog Crept in on Little Cat Feet’ and imagine you are teaching that poem and somebody in the back of the room, raises their hands and says, ‘Teacher, teacher, I don’t understand how could the fog creep, it doesn’t have feet, it is not a cat. This whole poem, it just doesn’t make any sense’. You would say, you just don’t understand the genre. There is no answer to that question, it is the wrong question, it is a bad question. You could ask if you want the imagery of the fog creeping, what’s it meant to convey but that is entirely a different question. That’s a question that makes sense for poetry. The bottom line is, you have to understand the genre. If you misinterpret the genre, you misinterpret everything.
And, so now, the great question is what kind of book is the Torah, how could we begin trying to read this book without having any idea what kind of genre it is? And the problem is it is not so easy to figure out what kind of genre the Torah is. It has got 613 laws. There are lot of laws, so maybe it is a law book, a legal treaties but it is really not such a good legal treaty but it sure has a lot of stories in it. What are all the stories doing in a legal treaty, it is just out of character. It’s got lots of philosophies in it, could it be a philosophy book? You know, there are too many laws and stories for it to be a philosophy book. So what kind of book is it?
Here is what I think it is, I would say it is a guide book. It is a book intended to guide individuals and a nation, how to develop a relationship with those around them. A relationship with people around them, a relationship with their God. How to do that at the collective level if you are the nation of Israel and how to do that at the individual level if you are one of the people of Israel. What does this guide book consists of, what is it take to guide someone in this?
One of the things it takes is laws. There are laws that you have to follow, certain laws that you have to know, the laws are very, very important but it doesn’t just take laws, it takes more than laws. So if you say to yourself, all that it takes to be a good person is to follow the 613 commandments, that’s actually, probably not entirely true. The Ramban talks about being a menuval b’reshus haTorah. Somebody who keeps punctiliously, all the commands and still is a morally obtuse person. How is that possible? It is possible because law alone is a too narrow a discipline, to completely regulate human behavior and the Torah itself accepts that and that’s why there are stories. The stories are there to teach you values, stories that tell about what happened with our ancestors and the way God dealt with them and the way they dealt with God and there are timeless lessons that are applied to us today. That are not about laws but are about larger truth. So we are supposed to find a way to integrate into our lives and there are certain philosophical notions that we need to understand so the Torah talks about those ideas too. It takes all of that to guide us.
So now, back to Mortimer Adler. If the Torah is a guide book, what is that then mean? It means that everything it tells you, its laws, its stories and its philosophy is all going to be told from the perspective of a guide book. Everything is going to get slanted, to be told from that perspective. And by the way Chazal says as much, there is a famous statement that our sages make, nevuah shechutz rochel hadorot niktivah, ‘any prophecy that was relevant for generations, ended up getting written in the Torah. Prophecies that were just locally relevant for particular generation, didn’t get written’. Why – because there were lots of insights of what life looked like back then, because it doesn’t guide you, that’s why. It is an interesting fact but only that which guides you is written.
Let me show you another puzzling aspect of how the Torah writes history. Chazal tell us, ein mukdam u’meuchar batorah,‘there is no such thing as chronological order in the Torah’. Really, there is no such thing as chronological order in the Torah? Well, there is but you can’t trust the chronological order in the Torah. Chazal say because every once in a while the Torah will actually place something second that happened first. Now, why would the Torah do that? Why would the Torah deliberately mislead you about the chronological order of events? Because, it is not a history book, it is a guide book and if the Torah can guide you by just deposing two different episodes with the same theme. So you should understand the theme that worked over, overarching periods of Jewish history, the Torah is going to do that and it is going to sacrifice the history in order to guide you.
And now, let’s come back to dinosaurs. So I think you may understand where I am going here. The dinosaurs might have been around but evidently the Torah didn’t consider using Tyrannosaurus Rex as a guide to human behavior and so it left it out and stegosaurus too. You want to learn about them, that’s what the American Museum of Natural History is for. So you will go there but the Torah is not going to tell you about them because it doesn’t fit into the guidebook. Where they important for, what they contributed to the biological record…..Very important but they weren’t important for you and how to guide your life from the Torah’s perspective. So the Torah is not going to talk about it.
It may well be that the Torah tells one story and science tells another story and ultimately it is the same story, it is a story called reality. But one is intended to tell you the nuts and bolts of that reality and the other is intended to guide you through it.
When you and I read this guide, let us make no mistake about what we are reading. We are not just reading any old book. We are reading something that is meant to shape us, meant to help us tackle a grand quest as to what is the best way to live our lives and relationships with others. Everything the Torah tells us is designed to help us achieve those goals but we need to understand the genre in order to be able to understand the messages.
1. Bereishit: Thank You, God...For Not Making Me A Woman?
2. Noach: Why Aren't Dinosaurs In the Torah?
3. Lech Lecha: The Battle For Abraham's Legacy
4. Vayeira: Abram, Sarai, Hagar, Ishmael and...Exodus?
5. Vayeira: Epilogue
6. Chayei Sarah: Eliezer and Samuel's Surprising Connection
7. Toldot: What Is Isaac's Legacy?
8. Vayeitzei: Understanding Rachel's World
9. Vayishlach: From Jacob to Israel
10. Vayeishev: Does God Speak To Us Today?
11. Miketz: Reversing the Sale of Joseph
12. Vayigash: Understanding Pharaoh's Dream
13. Shmot: Does God Really "Love" Us?
14. Va'era: Seeing God in Science
15. Bo: God's Justice In Action
16. Beshalach: Fruit Trees In the Sea?
17. Beshalach: Epilogue
18. Yitro: Seeing Ten Commandments in the Burning Bush
19. Mishpatim: Does Our History Become Laws?
20. Mishpatim: Epilogue
21. Terumah: Angels In the Tabernacle? Part I/2
22. Tetzaveh: Angels In the Tabernacle?- Part 2/2
23. Ki Tisa: A Closer Look At Kiddush
24. Vayakhel-Pekudei: God In Space, God In Time
25. Vayikra: How Can We Relate To Sacrifices Today?
26. Tzav: A Deeper Look At The Priestly Role
27. Tzav: Epilogue
28. Shemini: What Does Aaron Teach Us About Loss?
29. Tazria-Metzora: Rejoining the Community
30. Acharei Mot-Kedoshim: Social Justice...and Sacrifices?
31. Emor: An Epic View of Jewish Holidays
32. Behar-Bechukotai: Walking With God
33. Bamidbar: Why We Count
34. Beha'alotecha: Where It All Went Wrong
35. Shelach: How Can We Relate To Such a Vengeful God?
36. Korach: Why Did Korach Rebel?
37. Chukat: Why Did Moses Hit The Rock?
38. Balak: What Is Israel's Purpose In The World?
39. Pinchas: What Is True Leadership?
40. Matot-Masei: The Art of Negotiation
41. Devarim: What Did Moses Do Wrong?- Part 1/2
42. Va'etchanan: What Did Moses Do Wrong?- Part 2/2
43. Eikev: Why Does The Nation Of Israel Merit The Land?
44. Why Do We Need Both Oral and Written Law?
45. Shoftim: The Significance of Saving Private Ryan
46. Ki Teitzei: How To Merit Long Life
47. Ki Tavo: The Pursuit of Happiness- Part 1
48. Nitzavim: The Pursuit of Happiness- Part 2/2
49. Vayeilech: Moses' Farewell To Israel, Part 1/3
50. Ha'azinu: Moses' Farewell To Israel, Part 2/3
51. V'Zot Habracha: Moses' Farewell To Israel, Part 3/3
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