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Welcome the book of Leviticus! In this video, we explore Rashi's puzzling comment, that a nation is lucky if it has a leader who brings a sacrifice for an accidental sin. Rabbi Fohrman contrasts the Torah's perspective of power and justice to the philosophy of Richard Nixon's famous line - "When the president does it, it is not illegal."
Finally, ten verses or so later, we get to a fourth case: the executive branch, the Nasi, the leader who presides over the community commits an inadvertent transgression, and he brings a 'Khatat' for that sin.
Interestingly, when the Torah tells us about this case, it's in the words “asher nasi yekhata,” when a Nasi shall sin, the beginning word there is ‘asher.’ Asher means 'that'. Rashi commenting on this, notes the similarity between the word 'asher', alef-shin-resh and the word 'ashrey', alef-shin-resh-yud. 'Ashray' means fortunate, Rashi comments.
“Fortunate is the generation whose leader brings a 'Khatat' offering.” His leader is concerned enough with the right and the good and cases when they are at fault and they bring such an offer. I want to dwell with you for a moment on the implications of that Rashi.
I remember back as a child, visiting my grandparents. The television would constantly be on and no matter what channel you were on, it was always the same thing. The Watergate Hearings.
[On TV: “….my conclusions, rather it’s interesting in the facts that I know them.”]
The Watergate hearings eventually drove President Nixon from office. And afterwards, when I was just a little bit older, I got to watch David Frost interviewing former President Nixon about the Watergate scandal.
[On TV: So, what is essence you are saying is that, there are certain situations and the Houston plan - that part of it was one of them - where the President can decide that it’s in the best interest of the nation or something, and do something illegal?
2nd Person: Oh, when the President does it, that means that it is not illegal.
1st Person: By definition.
2nd Person: Exactly.]
When the President does it, it's not illegal. And right there, in an instant, you have the crux of the matter that the Torah is dealing with here. 'When the President does it, is it still illegal?' The Torah's answer, emphatically, is YES.
Just because you are at the top of the society, doesn't mean that you get to make the laws. Might, in essence, does not make right. There's a higher law to which you are accountable. 'Ashrey' - fortunate, is the nation whose leaders understand that; whose leaders are willing to subjugate themselves by bringing a 'khatat' when they view themselves to be in violation of that higher law.
When you think about these opposing pulls, the interest of power on the one hand and the interest of the good and the right and the moral and the just on the other hand, we tend to think of those as in a kind of an irreconcilable tension with each other. But I don't think that's really the case. If I am in power, if I am a President, the Chief Executive or something like that, I can believe that my power would be diminished in cases in which I yield to that which is right. If it gets in the way of my power. If it doesn't allow me to achieve what I want to achieve. But in fact, that's actually not true. In a case such as this, sometimes your power is enhanced by your willingness not to exercise it.
The New York Times recently reported about a high school quarterback that broke the record for yards passed in a single season on the last pass of the season. But after the game, the quarterback realized that something was wrong and found that his coach had conspired with the coach of the opposing team to fix the final play. When finding that out, the High school Quarterback wrote a letter to the High School Commission on sports, asking them to strike the last pass from the records. In so doing, did he sacrifice his power, or in a certain way, even enhance it? Not only did this quarterback give in to the good, the right, to the just; but in so doing, in yielding power to justice, I think he actually increased his power, maybe not on the football field, but certainly off of it.
Ashray, fortunate is the generation in which the mighty lay themselves low before that which is good and that which is right. Happy is the generation whose Nasi brings a 'Khatat' offering. Not only is such a generation blessed, with a 'Nasi' who is good, with a 'Nasi' who is powerful. But it is blessed with a 'Nasi' who can marry the good and the powerful to achieve something truly special. The union of both of these qualities - ironically, the willingness to sacrifice power through admission of wrong can confer a kind of moral legitimacy which is very powerful.
Hi, this is Rabbi David Fohrman. I want to let you know, I always love hearing your feedback. There's a little space for comments underneath these videos. Please take advantage of that. Leave comments that I or your fellow students can take a look at.
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2. Noach: Why Did God Destroy the World?
3. Lech Lecha: Covenant With God
4. Vayeira: Abraham's Struggle With Loyalty
5. Chayei Sarah: What Makes For A Successful Life?
6. Toldot: A Conversation For the Ages
7. Vayeitzei: Consequences of Yaakov's Deceit
8. Vayishlach: Becoming a Person of Integrity
9. Vayeishev: Who Really Sold Joseph?
10. Miketz: Why Didn't Joseph Write Home?
11. Vayigash: The Epic Confrontation Between Judah and Joseph
12. Vayechi: Who is Joseph's Real Father?
13. Shmot: If Midrash is Real, Why Isn't It Peshat?
14. Va'era: Did God Take Away Pharaoh's Free Will?
15. Bo: Did God Really Need Ten Plagues?
16. Beshalach: What Does It Mean to Have Faith?
17. Yitro: The Marriage of God and Israel
18. Mishpatim: Female Servitude...Wait, What?
19. Terumah: Is There a Face Hiding in the Tabernacle?
20. Tetzaveh: Where Is God In a Physical World?
21. Ki Tisa: Moshe's Benevolent Chutzpah
22. Ki Tisa: Epilogue
23. Pekudei: A Giant Chiasm In Sefer Shmot
24. Vayikra: Can Leaders Make Mistakes?
25. Tzav: What Does It Mean To Survive?
26. Shemini: Why Did God Reject Nadav and Avihu?
27. Tazria: The Bizarre Purification of the Metzora
28. Metzora: Living Within the Community
29. Acharei Mot: The (Surprising) Purpose of Yom Kippur
30. Kedoshim: How Can I Achieve True Love?
31. Emor: What Sabbath Is All About
32. Behar: Why Does Land Have To Rest?
33. Bechukotai: Why Would God Curse His People?
34. Bamidbar: Who Cares About Genealogy?
35. Shelach: Is Hope Irrational?
36. Korach: Can We Influence God?
37. Chukat: Was Hitting the Rock So Horrible?
38. Balak: Balaam, Prophet For Hire?
39. Pinchas: What Does It Mean To Be Zealous For God?
40. Matot: Why Is The End of Bamidbar So Anticlimactic?
41. Masei: Why Is The End of Bamidbar So Anticlimactic? II
42. Devarim: What Does It Mean To Have Faith?
43. Va'etchanan: Seeing Layers in the Ten Commandments
44. Eikev: What Does It Mean To Be A Good Person?- Part 1/2
45. Eikev: What Does It Mean To Be A Good Person?- Part 2/2
46. Shoftim: The Line Between Murder And Apathy
47. Shoftim: Epilogue 1
48. Shoftim: Epilogue 2
49. Ki Teitzei: The Hated Wife- Part 1/2
50. Ki Teitzei: The Hated Wife- Part 2/2
51. Nitzavim-Vayeilech: Where's the Happy Ending? - Part 1/3
52. Ha'azinu: A Unique Nation - Part 2/3
53. V'Zot Habracha: Looking Towards the Future - Part 3/3